Notification

Rules and Regulations

  • 2. IPZ

  • 4 .Delegation of Powers

  • 5.Eco-marks Scheme

  • 6.Eco-sensitive Zone

  • 7.Environmental Clearance - General

  • 8.Environmental Labs

  • 9. Environmental Standards

  • 10. Hazardous Substances Management

  • 11. Loss Of Ecology

  • 12. Noise Pollution

  • 13. Ozone Layer Depletion

  • 14. Water Pollution

  • 15. 2-T Oil

Q:Why is there a need for a Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011?
The Ministry of Environment and Forests had issued the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification on 19.2.1991 under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, with the aim to provide comprehensive measures for the protection and conservation of our coastal environment. However, over the last two decades the following issues emerged while implementing the 1991 Notification:

The 1991 Notification stipulated uniform regulations for the entire Indian coastline which includes 5500 Km coastline of the mainland and 2000 Km of coastline of the islands of Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep. It, therefore, failed to take into account that the Indian coastline is highly diverse in terms of biodiversity, hydrodynamic conditions, demographic patterns, natural resources, geomorphological and geological features.

In the 1991 Notification, no clear procedure for obtaining CRZ clearance was laid down and no time lines stipulated. Furthermore, there was no format given for the submission of clearance applications.

It may be noted that the 1991 Notification, also did not provide a post clearance monitoring mechanism or a clear cut enforcement mechanism to check violations.

The 1991 Notification sought to regulate all developmental activities in the inter-tidal area and within 500 metres on the landward side. No concrete steps were indicated in the 1991 Notification with regard to the pollution emanating from land based activities.

The restrictive nature of the 1991 Notification caused hardships to the persons/ communities living in certain ecologically sensitive coastal stretches. These included slum dwellers and other persons living in dilapidated and unsafe buildings in Mumbai, communities living in islands in the backwaters of Kerala, local communities living along the coast of Goa and other traditional coastal inhabitants.

The 1991 Notification has been amended almost 25 times in consideration of requests made by various State Governments, Central Ministries, NGOs etc. In addition, there are also several offi ce orders issued by Ministry of Environment and Forests clarifying certain provisions. The frequent changes to the 1991 Notification have been consolidated in the 2011 Notification.

The 2011 Notification takes into account and address all the above issues in a comprehensive manner, relying on the recommendations made in the "Final Frontier" Report by the Committee chaired by Dr. M.S. Swaminathan on Coastal Regulation and the findings of the various consultations held in various coastal States and Union territories. The Minister of State (I/C) personally presided over the consultations in Goa, Chennai, Puri, Kochi and Mumbai.

Q:What are the objectives of the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011?

To ensure livelihood security to the fishing communities and other local communities living in the coastal areas;

To conserve and protect coastal stretches and;

To promote development in a sustainable manner based on scientific principles, taking into account the dangers of natural hazards in the coastal areas and sea level rise due to global warming.

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Q:How have the coastal zones been classified under the 2011 Notification?
In the 1991 Notification the CRZ area was classified as CRZ-I (ecological sensitive), CRZ-II (built-up area), CRZ-III (Rural area) and CRZ-IV (water area). In the 2011 Notification the above classifi cation is retained. The only change is the inclusion of CRZ-IV, which includes the water areas upto the territorial waters and the tidal-influenced water bodies.

For the very first time, a separate draft Island Protection Zone Notification has been issued for protection of the islands of Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

Q:What are the coastal areas that qualify as falling within the CRZ-I category?
i)Ecologically sensitive areas and the geomorphological features that play a primary role in maintaining the integrity of the coast.

Mangroves, in case mangrove area is more than 1000 square metres, a buffer area of 50 metres shall be provided;

Corals and coral reefs and associated biodiversity;

Sand Dunes;

Mudfl ats which are biologically active;

National parks, marine parks, sanctuaries, reserve forests, wildlife habitats and other protected areas under the provisions of Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 (53 of 1972), the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 (69 of 1980) or Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986); including Biosphere Reserves encompassing; ~ Salt Marshes; ~ Turtle nesting grounds; ~ Horse shoe crabs habitats; 4 ~ Sea grass beds; ~ Nesting grounds of birds; ~ Areas or structures of archaeological importance and heritage sites; (ii) The area between Low Tide Line and High Tide Line.

Q:What are the activities permissible in CRZ-I?
The activities permitted in CRZ-I under the 2011 Notification are the activities that were permissible under the 1991 Notification as amended from time to time. These relate to the following:-

(i) No new construction shall be permitted in CRZ-I except;

Projects relating to the Department of Atomic Energy;

Pipelines, conveying systems including transmission lines;

Facilities that are essential for activities permissible under CRZ-I;

Installation of weather radar for monitoring of cyclones movement and prediction by the Indian Meteorological Department;

Construction of trans-harbour sea link and roads on stilts or pillars without affecting the tidal flow of water, between LTL and HTL.

Development of green fi eld airport already permitted at only Navi Mumbai;

(ii) Between Low Tide Line and High Tide Line in areas which are not ecologically sensitive, the following may be permitted;

Exploration and extraction of natural gas;

Construction of dispensaries, schools, public rain shelter, community toilets, bridges, roads, jetties, water supply, drainage, sewerage which are required to meet the needs of traditional inhabitants living within the biosphere reserves after obtaining approval from concerned CZMA.

Salt harvesting by solar evaporation of seawater;

Desalination plants;

Storage of non-hazardous cargo such as edible oil, fertilizers and food grain within notified ports;

Construction of trans-harbour sea links, roads on stilts or pillars without affecting the tidal flow of water.

Q:What are the coastal areas that qualify as falling within the CRZ-II category?
The Notification defi nes CRZ-II as the areas which are developed upto or close to the shoreline and falling within municipal limits.

Q:What are the activities permissible in CRZ-II areas?
Buildings are permissible on the landward side of the existing road, authorized structure or hazardous line where there are no authorised structures. Other activities such as desalination plants and storage of non-hazardous cargo are also permissible. The Floor Space Index and Floor Area Ratio for construction projects shall be as on 19.2.1991 except for those specified in the CRZ Notification, 2011 which is mainly for slum redevelopment and redevelopment of dilapidated structures.

Q:What are the coastal areas that qualify as falling within the CRZ-III category? What are the activities permitted in these areas?

CRZ-III areas are those areas that are relatively undisturbed and do not fall under either in Category I or II and also include rural and urban areas that are not substantially developed.

All permissible activities for CRZ-III as listed in the CRZ Notification, 1991 are retained in the Notification. Between 0-200 metres from HTL is a No Development Zone where no construction shall be permitted. Only certain activities relating to agriculture, horticulture, gardens, pasture, parks, play field, forestry, projects of Department of Atomic Energy, mining of rare minerals, salt manufacture from seawater, facilities for receipt, storage, regasifi cation of petroleum products and liquefi ed natural gas, facilities for generating power by non-conventional energy sources and certain public facilities may be permitted in this zone.

Between 200-500 metres of HTL, construction and repair of houses of local communities, tourism projects including green fi eld airport at Navi Mumbai, facilities for receipt, storage, degasifi cation of petroleum products and liquefi ed natural gas, storage of non-hazardous cargo, desalination plants, facilities for generating power by non-conventional energy sources are permissible

Q:What are the coastal areas that qualify as falling within the CRZ-II category?
The aquatic area from low tide line upto territorial limits is classified as CRZ-IV including the area of the tidal influenced water body.

Q:What are the activities permissible in the CRZ-IV?
In CRZ-IV areas, there is no restriction on the traditional fishing and allied activities undertaken by local communities. However, no untreated sewage, effluents or solid waste shall be let off or dumped in these areas. A comprehensive plan for treatment of sewage generating from the city must be formulated within a period of one year from the date of issue of this Notification and be implemented within two years thereafter.

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Q:What are the new provisions contained in the 2011 Notification to benefit the fisher-folk community?

Since the fishing communities traditionally live in the coastal areas, they have been given primary importance when drafting the CRZ Notification 2011.

One of the stated objectives of the Notification is "to ensure livelihood security to the fisher communities and other local communities, living in the coastal areas… and to promote development through sustainable manner based on scientific principles taking into account the dangers of natural hazards in the coastal areas, sea level rise due to global warming."

The following are the provisions in the 2011 Notification that address the issues relating to fishermen community:-

(i) Water area up to 12 nautical miles and the tidal influenced water bodies have been included under the Coastal Regulation Zone areas in order to:

control the discharge of untreated sewage, effluents and the disposal of solid wastes as such activities endanger the fish and their ecosystem;

Conserve and protect habitats in the marine area such as corals and coral reefs and associated biodiversity, marine sanctuaries and biosphere reserves, sea grass beds etc. which act as spawning, nursery and rearing grounds for fish and fisheries;

Regulate activities in the marine and coastal waters such as dredging, sand mining, discharge of waste from ships, construction like groynes, breakwaters, etc. including reclamation which have serious impacts on fishing and allied activities;

Enable studies of the coastal and marine waters with regard to the impact of climate change and the occurrence of disasters which have serious impacts on the livelihood and property of the fisher-folk communities;

It may be noted that no restrictions are being imposed on any fishing activities and allied activities of the traditional fishing communities in this area.

(ii) At several coastal stretches of the country the fishermen and their dwelling units are in danger due to erosion which is occurring primarily due to manmade activities. The development of such manmade foreshore activities shall be regulated after identifying and demarcating the coast as falling in the high eroding category, the medium eroding category or the stable sites category.

(iii) While preparing the Coastal Zone Management Plans the infrastructures essential for fishing communities must be clearly demarcated and fishing Zones in the water bodies and the fish breeding areas shall also be clearly marked.

(iv) The 2011 Notification requires the Coastal Zone Management Authorities to invite comments on the draft Coastal Zone Management Plan from stakeholders. This will ensure that for the fi rst time, local communities including fishermen communities, will have a say in the preparation of the CZMPs.

(v) The Notification allows infrastructural facilities for the local fishing communities to be constructed in the CRZ-III area.

(vi) Reconstruction, repair works of dwelling units of local communities including fisheries in accordance with local Town and Country Planning Regulations has been made permissible.

(vii) In CRZ-III areas where 0-200 metres is a No Development Zone (NDZ), to meet the demands of dwelling units of traditional coastal communities including fisher-folk, the NDZ has been reduced to 100 metres. Hence, dwelling units of such communities can be constructed 100-200 metres from High Tide Line along the seafront with the approval of the State Government and the MoEF.

Q:What are some of the state specific provisions made in the 2011 Notification for the Fisherfolk Community?
Special provisions have also been incorporated for the fishermen communities living along the coastal areas in Maharashtra, Goa, Kerala, Sunderban and other ecologically sensitive areas.

Greater Mumbai: For the traditional fishing communities (namely, the Koliwadas) living in Greater Mumbai a provision has been provided, wherein, the area concerned shall be mapped and declared as CRZ-III and development including construction and reconstruction can be taken up as per local Town and Country Planning Regulations.

Goa: The Government of Goa shall survey and map the fishing villages all along the Goa coast and all facilities required for fishing and allied activities shall be provided. As per the CRZ Notification, 1991, expansion/reconstruction/ repair of dwelling units of local communities in CRZ areas were viewed as violations of the Notification if the requisite permission had not been taken from the authorities. Such units (approximately 5,000) were ordered to be demolished by the Hon'ble High Court of Bombay. However, the 2011 Notification provides that reconstruction and repair of the structures of local communities shall also be permissible in CRZ areas.

Kerala: The CRZ area in Kerala is reduced to 50 metres from High Tide Line (HTL) on the landward side. This area is a 'No Development Zone' where no new constructions can be carried out. However, dwelling units of local communities within this area may be repaired and reconstructed. Necessary foreshore facilities such as fishing jetty, fish drying yards, net mending yard, fishing processing by traditional methods, boat building yards, ice plant, boat repairs etc. can also be constructed within the 0-50 metres area. Beyond 50 metres from HTL on the landward side, dwelling units of local communities may be constructed with the permission of the local panchayat.

Sunderban: In order to regulate development in Sunderban and other ecologically sensitive areas, and to take up conservation and protection of these areas for the benefi t of local communities an integrated management plan (IMP) is required to be prepared in consultation with the communities. The housing needs of the local communities including fisherfolk who are living in such ecologically sensitive areas shall be also addressed in the IMP.

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Q:What are the provisions in the 2011 Notification for the prevention of pollution in coastal areas/coastal waters?

The 2011 Notification lists out certain measures that have to be taken to prevent pollution in the coastal areas/coastal waters. The disposal of wastes and effluents into coastal waters is a prohibited activity. All coastal states are required to ensure that:

the existing practice of discharging untreated waste and effluents is phased out within a period not exceeding two years.

Dumping of solid waste is phased out within one year from the commencement of the Notification.

An Action Plan is to prepared for dealing with pollution in coastal areas and waters and in a time bound manner.

The Action Plan is submitted to MoEF who would provide technical and financial assistance.

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Q:What is the clearance procedure laid down under the 2011 Notification?

Unlike the 1991 Notification which did not lay down the process for obtaining CRZ clearance, a specific procedure has been provided in the 2011 Notification for obtaining such clearance. This procedure is as follows:

(i) The project authorities shall submit the proposal to the concerned State/UT CZMA along with the following documents/reports,-

  • Form-1 (Annexure-IV of the Notification);
  • Rapid Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Report including marine and terrestrial EIA. Comprehensive EIA and cumulative studies for port and foreshore requiring projects as per guidelines issued by MoEF from time to time;
  • Disaster Management Report and Risk Management Report;
  • CRZ map indicating HTL and LTL demarcated by an authorized agency (1:4000 scale);
  • Project layout superimposed on the above mentioned map;
  • The CRZ map shall normally indicate a 7km radius around the project site.
  • The CRZ map shall indicate the CRZ-I, II, III and IV areas;
  • No Objection Certifi cate from the concerned Pollution Control Boards or Committees for the projects which envisage discharge of effluents, solid wastes, sewage etc. (NOC from the Pollution Control Boards or Committees has been made mandatory in view to minimize pollution in the coastal waters)

(ii) The concerned CZMA shall examine the above documents in accordance with the approved CZMP and CRZ Notification and make recommendations within a period of sixty days from date of receipt of above document to,-

  • SEAC or EAC in case of the project attracting EIA Notification, 2006;
  • MoEF or State Government for the project attracting CRZ Notification;

(iii) MoEF or State Government shall consider such projects based on the recommendations of the concerned CZMA within a period of sixty days.

Q:How long is this clearance valid?
The clearance accorded to the projects under the 2011 Notification shall be valid for the period of fi ve years from the date of issue of such clearance.

Q:What is the post-clearance monitoring mechanism?
Once the clearance has been accorded to projects under the 2011 Notification, the following post clearance mechanism kicks in:

  • It shall be mandatory for the project management to submit half-yearly compliance reports in respect of the terms and conditions stipulated for granting environmental clearance in hard and soft copies to the concerned regulatory authority, on 1st June and 31st December of each calendar year;
  • All such compliance reports submitted by the project management shall be public documents;
  • Copies of the same shall be given to any person on application to the concerned regulatory authority;
  • The latest compliance report shall also be displayed on the website of the concerned regulatory authority and shall be valid for the period of fi ve years from the date of issue of clearance.

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Q:What is the mechanism of enforcement prescribed under the 2011 Notification?
The CRZ Notification, 1991 did not indicate the enforcement mechanism. This was one of the major drawbacks of the Notification and also the primary reason for the large number of violations. The CRZ Notification, 2011 lays out the method and the time frame in which actions shall be taken against any violations of the Notification. The CZMAs at the State level and the NCZMA, at the Central level shall be strengthened in a time bound manner and their capacities enhanced by MoEF for effectively enforcing the Notification. The violation shall be identified by using latest appropriate maps, satellite imagery and information technology within a period of four months from date of issue of the 2011 Notification and necessary action will be initiated in accordance with the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 within a period of four months thereafter.

Q:What further measures have been taken to ensure transparency?
To ensure transparency in the working of the CZMAs, the Coastal Zone Management Authority has to create a website and post on such website the agendas, minutes, decision taken, clearance letters, violations, action taken, court cases etc. including the CZMPs. (Such provisions were not provided for in the CRZ Notification, 1991.)

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Q:What are the areas requiring special consideration?
The 1991 Notification provided for the uniform regulation of the coastal areas in the entire country irrespective of the environmental diversity, socio-economic conditions, developmental pressures etc. In the 2011 Notification special provisions have been inserted, keeping in view the diverse problems faced by local communities like those individuals living in slums, those inhabiting old and unsafe buildings in Mumbai, people living in islands in the backwaters in Kerala, local communities living in the coast of Goa and the communities living in ecologically sensitive areas of the Sunderban etc.

Q:What are the special dispensations given to Greater Mumbai?
Keeping in mind the fact the Mumbai faces some unique environmental and social issues the following provisions have been drafted:

A. CRZ-I areas:

  • All approved roads and links must be constructed on silts to ensure free flow of tidal waters.
  • Five times the number of mangroves destroyed/cut during the above construction process shall be replanted.
  • Within one year of issue of this Notification, all mangrove areas must be mapped, notified and measures for conservation must be initiated, solid disposal sites must be relocated outside CRZ area and an action plan must be launched to protect habitations and structures located on the seaward side of the hazard line.

B. CRZ-II area:

  • The State Government may undertake slum redevelopment schemes in the CRZ-II areas in compliance with the Floor Space Index or Floor Area Ratio as specified in the Town and Country Planning Regulations, prevailing as on the date of the project being sanctioned. However, the stake of the State Government or its agencies shall not be less than 51% in such projects.
  • Redevelopment and reconstruction of old, dilapidated, and unsafe buildings in the CRZ-II area shall be allowed. All such projects must be taken up by the owners of the buildings, directly or with private developers. All construction must be in accordance with the Town and Country Planning Regulations prevailing as on the date on which the project is granted approval by the competent authority.
  • In order to protect and preserve the 'green lung' of the Greater Mumbai area, all open spaces, parks, gardens, playgrounds indicated in development plans within CRZ-II shall be categorized as CRZ-III, that is, 'no development zone'. Only construction of civic amenities and facilities for recreational sports shall be permitted if the fl oor index is upto 15%. Residential and commercial use of such spaces is prohibited.
  • Reconstruction and repair of the dwelling units belonging to local communities in CRZ-II areas shall be permitted by the Competent Authorities on a priority basis.
  • Fishing settlement areas including Koliwada, and those identified in the Development Plan of 1981 or relevant records of the Government of Maharashtra, shall be mapped and declared as CRZ-III so that any development, including construction and reconstruction of dwelling units within these settlements shall be undertaken in accordance with applicable local Town and Country Planning Regulations.

Q:What is the mechanism to ensure that no malpractice takes place on account of such special dispensation for Greater Mumbai?
In order to ensure that the redevelopment of slums and dilapidated structures in Mumbai are done in the most transparent and accountable manner, the following measures are provided:-

  • The Right to Information Act, 2005 shall be applicable to all redevelopment or reconstruction projects granted clearance by the Competent Authorities.
  • Auditing shall be done by the offi ce of the Comptroller and Auditor General (C&AG) of India in case of projects relating to slum redevelopment and by the empanelled statutory auditor of C&AG in case of redevelopment of dilapidated, cessed and unsafe structures.
  • A High Level Oversight Committee shall be set up for periodic review by the Government of Maharashtra. This Committee shall include eminent representatives of like Architects, Urban Planners, Engineers, and members of Civil Society, besides the local urban bodies, the State Government and the Central Government.

Q:What are the special dispensations given to Kerala?
Kerala has one of the most unique coastal environments wherein more than 300 islands are located within its backwaters. Keeping in view the distinctive geographical layout of Kerala, special allowances have been provided for coastal stretches of Kerala in the Notification.

Since the islands in the backwaters of Kerala are narrow stretches of land, the CRZ area is reduced to 50 metres from HTL on the landward side. This area is a 'No Development Zone' where no new constructions can be carried out. Existing dwelling units of local communities within this area may however be repaired and reconstructed. Necessary foreshore facilities such as fishing jetty, fish drying yards, net mending yard, fishing processing by traditional methods, boat building yards, ice plant, boat repairs etc. can also be constructed within the 0-50 metres area. Beyond 50 metres from HTL on the landward side, dwelling units of local communities may be constructed with the permission of the local panchayat.

Q:What are the special dispensations given to Sunderban and other ecologically sensitive areas?Sunderban is the largest mangrove area in the country. Nearly 5 lakh people live within the biosphere itself. Sunderban is being greatly affected by the rising sea levels and changing weather patterns caused by climate change. Further, the local communities face immense hardship due to lack of infrastructure facilities. An integrated management plan is proposed to be drawn up, under the Notification, for Sunderban and such ecologically important areas such as Gulf of Khambat and Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat, Malvan, Achra- Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, Karwar and Coondapur in Karnataka, Vembanad in Kerala, Bhaitarkanika in Orissa, Coringa, East Godavari and Krishna in Andhra Pradesh. These areas would be declared as Critical Vulnerable Coastal Areas (CVCA) and the integrated management plan would be prepared for each of these areas in consultation with the local communities. Until the integrated management plans are drawn up and initiated, all necessary infrastructure developments for the local inhabitants in these areas shall be permitted on a case to case basis by the Coastal Zone Management Authority.

Q:What are the special dispensations given to Goa?
Specific provisions have been provided for the State of Goa with a stringent regulatory mechanism for sustainable development and ecological protection of coastal areas. Other provisions include the following:

  • Since the traditional occupation of the population living along the coast is mainly the fishing and allied activities and fishing communities require basic infrastructure facilities for their livelihood, such facilities shall be provided by the Government of Goa after conducting a comprehensive survey.
  • Reconstruction, repair of the structures of local communities shall be permissible in the CRZ areas.
  • The eco sensitive low lying areas influenced by tidal action known as khazan lands shall be mapped. All mangroves along such land shall be protected and a management plan shall be prepared. No developmental activities shall be permitted in the khazan land.
  • Sand dunes, beach stretches along the bays and creeks shall be surveyed and mapped. No activity shall be permitted on such sand dune areas.
  • Beaches such as Mandrem, Morjim, Galgiba and Agonda have been designated as turtle nesting sites and protected under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. These areas shall be surveyed and management plan prepared for protecting these sites. No developmental activities shall be permitted in these areas.

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Q:Will the coming into force of the 2011 Notification mean that existing violations of the CRZ Notification, 1991 are condoned?
No. As per appropriate direction to be issued by the MoEF under section 5 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, specific guidelines will be provided to all CZMAs on the process to be adopted using latest appropriate maps, satellite imagery and information technology within a specified time frame for action.

Q:What will be the status of the Coastal Zone Management Plans which have been prepared under the 1991 Notification once the 2011 Notification is issued?
The Notification provides that until new CZMPs in accordance with CRZ Notification, 2011 are approved, the CZMPs prepared under Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 1991 shall be followed.

Q:Will the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011 regularize the buildings constructed in violation of the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 1991 such as, Adarsh etc?
No. As per appropriate direction to be issued by the MoEF under section 5 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, specific guidelines will be provided to all CZMAs on the process to be adopted using latest appropriate maps, satellite imagery and information technology within a specified time frame for action.

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Q:Why is a separate Island Protection Zone Notification, 2011 required?
There are about 500 islands in Andaman & Nicobar and about 30 in Lakshadweep. These two groups of oceanic islands are home to some of the country's most thriving biodiversity hotspots. The A&N Islands are known for their terrestrial and marine biodiversity including forest area which covers 85% of the Andaman and Nicobar geographical area, while, Lakshadweep is a coral island. The geographical areas of these islands are so small that in most of the cases the 500 metres Coastal Regulation Zone regulations overlap. Hence, a separate Notification is being issued which takes into account the management of the entire island (except for four islands of A&N which include North Andaman, Middle Andaman, South Andaman and Great Nicobar).

Q:What are the objectives of the IPZ Notification, 2011?
The main objectives of the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011 are:

  • To ensure livelihood security to the fishing communities, tribals and other local communities living in the coastal areas;
  • To conserve and protect coastal stretches and;
  • To promote development in a sustainable manner based on scientific principles, taking into account the dangers of natural hazards in the coastal areas and sea level rise due to global warming.

Q:What is the Jurisdiction of the IPZ Notification, 2011?
For the four islands namely, North Andaman, Middle Andaman, South Andaman and Great Nicobar, the Notification applies to areas within 500 metres from the High Tide Line along the seafront, while for all other islands of A&N and Lakshadweep the entire geographical area, including the water area upto 12 nautical miles falls within purview of the Notification.

Q:Has the frequency of natural disasters been taken into account for the management of the islands?
Yes, the islands of A&N are prone to natural disasters including earthquake, tsunamis, cyclone etc. The Integrated Island Management Plan (IIMPs) would take into account all the natural disasters and other environmental issues. Suitable guidelines for preparing the IIMPs have been laid down in the Notification.

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Q:What are the most signifi cant new provisions in the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification,2011?

  1. (i) The entire water area which includes 12 nautical miles in the sea and the entire water area of a tidal water body such as creek, river, estuary will be regulated by the Notification.
  2. (ii) In order to safeguard livelihood and property of local communities including the infrastructure along the coastal areas the hazard line has been introduced which will be demarcated by the offi ces of the Survey of India.
  3. (iii) Keeping in view the environmental and social issues, special dispensation has been provided to Greater Mumbai, Kerala, Goa and Critically Coastal Vulnerable Areas such as the Sunderban.
  4. (iv) In view of the erosion experienced along the coastal areas due to man-made interventions the shoreline will be mapped using up-to-date satellite images and the shorelines will then be subsequently classified as 'high eroding', 'medium eroding' and 'low or stable stretches'. No foreshore development would be permissible in high eroding areas.
  5. (v) To meet the increasing demands of housing for fishing communities and other traditional coastal communities, the No Development Zone which is of 200 metres from the High Tide Line is being reduced to 100m.

Q:What are the main provisions of Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 1991 that have been retained in Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011?

  1. (i) The jurisdiction of 500 metres from the High Tide Line along the seafront and 100 metres from the High Tide Line along the tidal influenced water bodies has been retained
  2. (ii) The categorisations of the Coastal Regulation Zone area as Coastal Regulation Zone-I (ecologically sensitive areas), Coastal Regulation Zone-II (urban areas), Coastal Regulation Zone-III (rural areas) have been retained.
  3. (iii) The methodology to be utilised for the preparation of Coastal Zone Management Plans demarcating Coastal Regulation Zone-I, II and III has been retained.

Q:What are the important provisions of Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 1991 that have been dropped in Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011?

  1. (i) No more SEZ projects in Coastal Regulation Zone area will be allowed.
  2. (ii) The provisions pertaining to the regulation of Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep have been dropped and in view of the specific geographical issues, environmental sensitivity and to meet the needs of the islanders, a separate Notification has been issued called IPZ Notification.
  3. (iii) The provisions restricting the expansion of housing for the rural communities in Coastal Regulation Zone-III area have been dropped.

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